Stevia in india,stevia cultivation in india,stevia training,stevia plants,stevia project report

STEVIA

(MEETHI PATTI)

The Stevia rebaudiana is commonly known as sweet leaf, sugar leaf, or simply Stevia. This is widely grown for its sweet leaves. Stevia and Sunflower belong to asteraceae family. The sweet herb Stevia is becoming a major source of natural sweetener as an alternate of sugar. It is rapidly replacing the chemical sweetener like Splenda, Saccharine and Aspartame.

The plant is native to tropical and subtropical regions of North America and South America. There are near about 240 species of Stevia Genus. It is grown widely in countries like Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay and Venezuela. In Venezuela it is being used over 1500 years.

Stevia leaves are 30 times sweeter than normal sugar. The extract of stevia Rebaudioside-A is around 300-400 times sweeter than normal sugar. The sweetness of stevia also felt for long time.

There are two compounds in stevia leaves 1.) Stevioside(10%-20%) and 2.) Rebaudioside-A(1-3%). The Stevioside is stable at 100 °C this is main advantage of Steviocide over other sweetener.

Today stevia is ready to become King in the market of sweetener. As demand of low carbohydrate sweetener is rising day by day.

A good market is being developed for stevia domestically as well as internationally. This is a ray of hope for the diabetic patient. As it is natural source of sweetener. It is also used for the treatment of obesity and high blood sugar patient. There is not increase in sugar level after consumption of stevia as sweetener as substitute of normal sugar.

Stevia, therefor, opens up new avenues for crop diversification and a viable alternative to sugarcane. There is a potential to use Stevia in soft drinks, confectionery and bakery etc. Instead of sweeteners with known adverse side effects in the long run. Stevia prevents tooth decay with its microbial property . Majority of the supplementary food products for diabetic patients emphasize on the fibre & protein content the addition of the Stevia leaves, dried or in powder form, in such products would not only aid in increasing the natural sweetness but would also help in rejuvenating the pancreatic gland.

Apart from this, Stevia is nutrient rich, containing substantial amount of Protein, Magnesium, Miocene, riboflavin, Zinc, Chromium, Selenium, Calcium & Phosphorus, Besides Stevia can also be used as a house hold sweetener in preparation of most Indian sweetmeats.

There are different views about stevia in different countries. Countries like Japan and Korea; it is widely used as sweetener. In some countries use of stevia is banned. Initially US govt banned stevia but in year 2008 the extract of stevia Rebaudioside-A was approved as food additive. Today the number of countries is increasing where stevia is available

Stevia crop has good potential in India. There is low risk in this crop. The investment in stevia is also tax free as it is agriculture production. The return also starts to come early. As it is planted for five years so the cost of plantation also accrue one time in five in 5 years. There is high potential of return as compared to traditional crop.

USE OF STEVIA:-

Stevia is available in many forms. The choice is totally dependent amount of sweetness we want. The fresh leaves are least sweet and the extracted white powder is the sweetest.

FRESH STEVIA LEAVES

This form of stevia is the herb in its most natural, unrefined state. A leaf picked from a stevia plant and chewed will impart an extremely sweet taste sensation reminiscent of licorice that lasts for quite a while.

For stevia to have a more practical application as a tea or sweetener, the leaves must be dried or put through an extraction process, which makes the sweet taste even more potent.

DRIED LEAVES

For more of the flavor and sweet constituents of the stevia leaf to be released, drying and crushing is necessary. A dried leaf is considerably sweeter than a fresh one, and is the form of stevia used in brewing herbal tea.Dried stevia leaf may come in bulk or packaged like tea bags. You can also get it finely powdered. It has a greenish color and can be used in a wide variety of foods and beverages, including coffee, applesauce and hot cereals. You also can use it to make an herbal tea blend. Its distinctive flavor is reminiscent of licorice, which will blend very well with different aromatic spices, such as cinnamon and ginger.

STEVIA EXTRACTS

The form in which stevia is primarily used as a sweetener in Japan is that ofa white powdered extract. In this form it is approximately 200 to 300 times sweeter than sugar (by weight).This white powder is an extract of the sweet glycosides (natural sweetening agents) in the stevia leaf.Not all stevia extract powders are the same. The taste, sweetness and cost of the various white stevia powders will likely depend on their degree of refinement and the quality of the stevia plant used. You may find that some powders have more of an aftertaste.Since extracted stevia powder is so intensely sweet, we recommend that it be used by the pinch (or drop if diluted in water). Once mixed, this solution should be stored in the refrigerator.

LIQUID CONCENTRATES

These come in several forms. There's a syrupy black liquid (that results from boiling the leaves in water), which can enhance the flavor of many foods. Another type is made by steeping stevia leaves in distilled water or a mix of water and grain alcohol. You can also find a liquid made from the white powder concentrate mixed with water, and preserved with grapefruit seed extract.

GROWING STEVIA

One need not be a South American planter to be a successful stevia grower. While the herb's native locale may make it appear somewhat exotic, it has proved to be quite adaptable and capable of being cultivated in climate zones as diverse as Florida and southern Canada.

True, home-grown stevia may lack the potency of refined white stevia extract; whole stevioside content generally ranges from 81 to 91 percent, as compared to a leaf level of approximately 12 percent. But it can provide you with a quantity of freshly harvested stevia 'tea leaves' to augment your supply of commercial stevia sweeteners.

Organic gardeners in particular should find stevia an ideal addition to their yield. Though nontoxic, stevia plants have been found to have insect-repelling tendencies. Their very sweetness, in fact, may be a kind of natural defense mechanism against aphids and other bugs that find it not to their taste. Perhaps that's why crop-devouring grasshoppers have been reported to bypass stevia under cultivation.

Then, too, raising stevia yourself, whether in your back yard or on your balcony, is another positive way you can personally (and quite legally) protest the wrongheaded government policies that have for so long deprived the American people of its benefits -- a kind of contemporary Victory Garden.

How to start your own stevia patch

It would be difficult, at best, to start a stevia patch from scratch -- that is, by planting seeds. Even if you could get them to germinate, results might well prove disappointing, since stevioside levels can vary greatly in plants grown from seed.

The recommended method is rather to buy garden-ready 'starter' plants, which given stevia's 'growing' popularity, may well be obtainable from a nursery or herbalist in your area -- provided you're willing to scout around a bit. If you're not, or are unsuccessful in locating any, there are at least three growers of high-quality stevia who will ship you as many baby plants as you'd like.

Keep in mind that not all stevia plants are created equal in terms of stevioside content, and, hence, sweetness. It's therefore a good idea to try to determine if the plants you're buying have been grown from cuttings whose source was high in stevioside.

Because tender young stevia plants are especially sensitive to low temperatures, it's important that you wait until the danger of frost is past and soil temperatures are well into the 50s and 60s before transplanting them into your garden.

Once you begin, it's best to plant your stevia in rows 20 to 24 inches apart, leaving about 18 inches between plants. Your plants should grow to a height of about 30 inches and a width of 18 to 24 inches.

The care and feeding of stevia

Stevia plants do best in a rich, loamy soil -- the same kind in which common garden-variety plants thrive. Since the feeder roots tend to be quite near the surface, it is a good idea to add compost for extra nutrients if the soil in your area is sandy.

Besides being sensitive to cold during their developmental stage, the roots can also be adversely affected by excessive levels of moisture. So take care not to overwater them and to make sure the soil in which they are planted drains easily and isn't soggy or subject to flooding or puddling.

Frequent light watering is recommended during the summer months. Adding a layer of compost or your favorite mulch around each stevia plant will help keep the shallow feeder roots from drying out.

Stevia plants respond well to fertilizers with a lower nitrogen content than the fertilizer's phosphoric acid or potash content. Most organic fertilizers would work well, since they release nitrogen slowly.

Gathering autumn stevia leaves

Harvesting should be done as late as possible, since cool autumn temperatures and shorter days tend to intensify the sweetness of the plants as they evolve into a reproductive state. While exposure to frost is still to be avoided, covering the plants during an early frost can give you the benefit of another few weeks' growth and more sweetness.

When the time does come to harvest your stevia, the easiest technique is to cut the branches off with pruning shears before stripping the leaves. As an extra bonus, you might also want to clip off the very tips of the stems and add them to your harvest, as they are apt to contain as much stevioside as do the leaves.

If you live in a relatively frost-free climate, your plants may well be able to survive the winter outside, provided you do not cut the branches too short (leaving about 4 inches of stem at the base during pruning). In that case, your most successful harvest will probably come in the second year. Five-year-old plants will not be as productive and, ideally, should be replaced with new cuttings.

In harsher climates, however, it might be a good idea to take cuttings that will form the basis for the next year's crop. Cuttings need to be rooted before planting, using either commercial rooting hormones or a natural base made from willow tree tips, pulverized onto a slurry in your blender. After dipping the cuttings in such a preparation, they should be planted in a rooting medium for two to three weeks, giving the new root system a chance to form. They should then be potted -- preferably in 4.5-inch pots -- and placed in the sunniest and least drafty part of your home until the following spring.

Unlocking the sweetness in your harvest

Once all your leaves have been harvested you will need to dry them. This can be accomplished on a screen or net. (For a larger application, an alfalfa or grain drier can be used, but about the only way an average gardener might gain access to such a device is to borrow it from a friendly neighbourhood farmer). The drying process is not one that requires excessive heat; more important is good air circulation. On a moderately warm fall day, your stevia crop can be quick dried in the full sun in about 12 hours. (Drying times longer than that will lower the stevioside content of the final product.) A home dehydrator can also be used, although sun drying is the preferred method.

Crushing the dried leaves is the final step in releasing stevia's sweetening power. This can be done either by hand or, for greater effect, in a coffee grinder or in a special blender for herbs. You can also make your own liquid stevia extract by adding a cup of warm water to 1/4 cup of fresh, finely-crushed stevia leaves. This mixture should set for 24 hours and then be refrigerated.

Growing stevia without land

Just because you live within the confines of an apartment or condominium doesn't mean you can't enjoy the benefits of stevia farming. This versatile plant can be grown either in pots on your balcony or any sunny spot, or else in a hydroponic unit. Stevia plants also do quite well in "container gardens." A 10" to 12" diameter container filled with a lightweight growing mix is an ideal size for each plant. A little mulch on the top will help retain the moisture in the shallow root zone. A properly fertilized hydroponic unit or container garden can provide you with as much stevia as an outdoor garden, if not more.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Stevia Cultivation In India

  

-: STEVIA CULIVATION:-
(ON 5 ACRE LAND)


Package of practices
for
Stevia cultivation in India



                                                                           



                                                                      


Hahnemann Charitable Mission Society
Mahaveer Nagar- II, Maharani Farm, Durgapura
Jaipur-302018- Rajasthan- INDIA
Contact: - 09887555005


NATURAL SWEETENER (ALTERNATE OF SUGAR)
STEVIA

BOTANICAL NAME :--Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni) Hemsl.


FAMILY-Asteraceae


INTRODUCTION ABOUT STEVIA

Stevia is an incredibly sweet herb, obtained by a natural selective breeding process of the sweetest Stevia parent plants. The sweetener stevioside, extracted from the plants, is 300 times sweeter than sugar. The fresh leaves have a nice liquorice taste. What makes the Stevia plant so special is that it can be used to replace sugar (sucrose). Many different uses of Stevia are already well-known: as table sugar, in soft drinks, pastry, pickles, tobacco products, candy, jam, yogurt, chewing gum, sorbets... The dried leaves of Stevia are about 40 times sweeter than sugar. The documented properties of Stevia are antibacterial, anti fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-yeast, cardio tonic, diuretic, hypoglycemic and hence a boon to diabetic people, hypotensive, tonic, and vasodilator. Indeed, the leaves contain diterpene glucosides with a sweet taste but which are not metabolized and contain no calories. The biggest part of the sweet glucosides consists of the stevioside molecule. Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni) is a perennial herbaceous plant and is part of the Asteraceae family. This family includes well-known plants such as dandelion, sunflower and chicory. The history of the culture of Stevia mainly stems from Paraguay and Brazil. Originally, Stevia only grew in the northern regions of South America but its cultivation has become popular worldwide. The plant has been known for centuries by the native Guaranay-Indians for the sweet taste of its leaves. They use it, amongst other things, to make "mate" herbal tea. Stevia is often referred to as the "sweetest plant of the world”. Its leaves are about 5 cm long and 2 cm wide and are planted crosswise, facing each other. In the wild, the height of the plant varies from 40 to 80 cm but when cultivated, the Stevia can become 1 meter high. Stevia can be grown on relatively poor soil. The plants can be used for commercial production for 6 years, during which five times a year a harvest takes place of the part of the plant that is above the ground. The roots remain in place and so the plant regenerates again. Plants, which are 1 meter high, have a dry weight of 70 g on average. The dry weight of the leaves can vary from 15 to 35 g per plant.

The Stevia rebaudiana is commonly known as sweet leaf, sugar leaf, or simply Stevia. This is widely grown for its sweet leaves. Stevia and Sunflower belong to asteraceae family. The sweet herb Stevia is becoming a major source of natural sweetener as an alternate of sugar. It is rapidly replacing the chemical sweetener like Splenda, Saccharine and Aspartame.

Today stevia is ready to become King in the market of sweetener. As demand of low carbohydrate sweetener is rising day by day. A good market is being developed for stevia domestically as well as internationally. This is a ray of hope for the diabetic patient. As it is natural source of sweetener. It is also used for the treatment of obesity and high blood sugar patient. There is not increase in sugar level after consumption of stevia as sweetener as substitute of normal sugar. Stevia, therefor, opens up new avenues for crop diversification and a viable alternative to sugarcane. Stevia crop has good potential in India. There is low risk in this crop. The investment in stevia is also tax free as it is agriculture production. The return also starts to come early. As it is planted for five years so the cost of plantation also accrue one time in five in 5 years. There is high potential of return as compared to traditional crop.

There is a potential to use Stevia in soft drinks, confectionery and bakery etc. Instead of sweeteners with known adverse side effects in the long run. Stevia prevents tooth decay with its microbial property . Majority of the supplementary food products for diabetic patients emphasize on the fibre & protein content the addition of the Stevia leaves, dried or in powder form, in such products would not only aid in increasing the natural sweetness but would also help in rejuvenating the pancreatic gland. Apart from this, Stevia is nutrient rich, containing substantial amount of Protein, Magnesium, Miocene, riboflavin, Zinc, Chromium, Selenium, Calcium & Phosphorus, Besides Stevia can also be used as a house hold sweetener in preparation of most Indian sweetmeats.

There are different views about stevia in different countries. Countries like Japan and Korea; it is widely used as sweetener. In some countries use of stevia is banned. Initially US govt banned stevia but in year 2008 the extract of stevia Rebaudioside-A was approved as food additive. Today the number of countries is increasing where stevia is available.


ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

Stevia has originated from Northeastern Paraguay and is widely distributed in USA, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Southeast Asia. It is commonly known as Caa-He-e (Sweet herb) in Japan and Korea and generally occurs on the edge of marshes or in grasslands on soil with shallow water tables.


ADVANTAGES OF STEVIA ARE AS FOLLOWING
1.        It is a completely natural non-synthetic product; Stevioside (the sweetener) contains absolutely no calories
2.        The leaves can be used in their natural state
3.        Thanks to its enormous sweetening power, only small quantities need to be used.
4.        The plant is non-toxic
5.        The leaves as well as the pure stevioside extract can be cooked
6.        No aftertaste or bitterness
7.        Stable when heated up to 200 degrees
8.        Non-fermentative
9.        Flavour enhancing
10.     Clinically tested and frequently used by humans without negative effect
11.     Ideal and non-addictive sweetener for children
USES  
·         Stevia is safe for diabetics, as it does, not affect blood sugar levels.
·          Stevia does not have the neurological or renal side effects of some of the artificial sweeteners.
·         Stevia possess anti-fungal and anti-bacterial property also in addition to its other versatile uses. It can be safely used in herbal medicines, tonics for diabetic patients and also in the daily usage products like mouthwashes, and tooth pastes.
·         Mild Stevia leaf tea offers excellent relief for an upset stomach.

OTHER USES OF STEVIA

The plant's leaves, the aqueous extract of the leaves, and purified steviosides are used as sweeteners. In health conscious Japan they are widely used in food products, soft drinks (including Coca Cola), and for table use. Japan currently consumes more Stevia than any other country; there, Stevia accounts for 40% of the sweetener market, other countries around the world have also been using Stevia as a sugar substitute, Stevia may be used in cooking and baking as a natural sweetener, adults and children alike may enjoy dessert recipes without risk of weight gain, tooth decay or hyperactivity, it also does not contain the negative side effects reported with the use of artificial sweeteners. When used in natural toothpowder recipes cavities and gum disease are reduced due to its antibacterial properties.

CUTIVATION AND PROPAGATION

SOIL

It grows well in sandy loam soils with an ample supply of water. It prefers acidic to neutral soil with a PH range of 6.5-7.5 for its best growth. Saline soils should be avoided as this plant is susceptible to water logged conditions.

CLIMATE

It is a semi-humid, subtropical plant and can grow in the temperature ranges between 04-48o C. An annual average temperature of 31o C with a rainfall of 140 cm per year has been found optimum for its good growth. It shows good seed germination when subjected to light and warm conditions. Hence, a long growing season, minimal frost, high light intensities and warm temperature favors higher leaf production. Stevia is a short day plant, but the concentration of stevioside in the leaves increases when the plants are grown under long day conditions. The day temperatures should not exceed 48 oC and the night temperatures should not fall below 04 o C.

LAND PREPARATION

The land sites are plowed and or cultivated twice to prepare a fairly smooth, firm-planting surface.


CULTIVATION PROPAGATION

Stevia plants can be propagated from cuttings or seeds or by tissue culture. As the seed germination is very poor and seedlings are very slow to establish, it is generally propagated clonally through cuttings. For vegetative propagation, stem cuttings of 15 cm length taken from leaf axils of the current year’s growth have been given better results. Treatment with Paclobutrazol @ 100ppm has been found to induce the root initiation in short time and IBA@500 ppm is also found to be effective. The best months for propagation are February-March. The cuttings will be ready for transplanting after 25-30 days of rooting.

TRANSPLANTS

Transplants from cuttings would be superior; however, cost makes it prohibitive. Stevia must be propagated from seed in plug trays placed in a greenhouse for a period of 7 to 8 weeks. 

PLANTING

Depending on different climatic conditions, Stevia is cultivable throughout the year except for times when it is extremely hot or cold. Stevia plug plants are planted into the field on 75 cm  bed with row spacing of 45 cm at 45 cm height with a total plant density in the order of 30,000 plants per Acre.

FERTILIZATION

The plant appears to have low nutrient requirements; however a soil test should be conducted. Good organic manure must be applied time to time

WEED CONTROL

This crop also requires hand hoeing and weeding. After every 2 months there must be weeding

PESTS

Insect pest pressures other than cutworm are minimal. Septoria disease can cause considerable damage to the Stevia crop. Animals seem to like the sweet taste of Stevia, too. Application on neem based product will manage the disease and pests.

HARVESTING

Time of harvesting depends on land variety and growing season. Generally, it can be scheduled when plants are 40-60 centimeters in height. Shorter days induce flowering. Optimum yield (biomass) and stevioside quality and quantity is best just prior to flowering. The plant will tolerate very low temperatures.

DRYING

Drying of the woody stems plus the soft green leaf material is completed immediately after harvesting, utilizing a drying wagon or a kiln. Depending on weather conditions and density of loading, it generally takes 24 to 48 hours to dry Stevia at 40°C to 50°C. An estimated 2500 kg/Acre dry green leaves are obtained from three-four cutting of every year. It is cultivated up to 5 years after a one time plantation. 

THRESHING

Immediately following drying, a specially designed thresher/separator is necessary to separate dry Stevia leaves from its stem.

Farm development:-

Still the farm is in open location and it is undeveloped. First of all the farm will be develop then after it will require the fencing. There is no availability of the water so the water source will be required for the irrigation water.

Cost of farm development

1.       250 Pillars (Total boundary 2520 feet) @ Rs 400/Pillar           = 1, 00,000 /=
2.       15120 Feet (6 payer of the wire on total boundary                   =     75,000 /=
3.       Land development                                                                             =     50,000 /=
4.       Bore-well with electric motor                                                    = 2, 00,000 /=
5.       One room set accommodation                                                  = 1, 00,000 /=
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Total Expenses for the Farm development                                     = 5, 25,000 /=
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
The above cost will be required for any type of cultivation for the farm development.

COST OF CULTIVATION OF STEVIA

Stevia is newly introduced new crop with the regular earning. As the first cutting of the crop start after six month of the sowing and there is regular cutting after every 3-4 Months as per climatic condition. The crop is at high demand as it is only source of natural sweetener. The crop is the first choice of the sugar free industry. The processing plants have also been established in the country. The crop is planted for five years. After the fifth year the marginal return start to decline so it is best to uproot crop and replant it. 
FOR ONE ACRE LAND


S.N.

Particulars

Activity

I -Year

II-Year

III-Year

IV -Year

V- Year

1

Field Preparation

Cultivator, Deep Ploughing, Levelling

2,000

-------

--------

--------

---------

2

Manure / Fertilizers

Dry cow dung manure

And Biofungiside

20,000

10000

10000

10000

10000

3

Plants


30,000 Plants

@ Rs 3 / Plant

90,000

-------

-------

-------

---------

4

Drip Irrigation Installation

 

30,000

--------

--------

---------

---------

5

Weeding and Intercultural operations

This will be done manually after every 2 month (6 operation per year)

6,000

6,000

6,000

6000

6000

6

Planting Charges

To place the plants in the field

2,000

-------

--------

--------

-----------

7

Harvesting


Cutting the leaves

1500

2000

2000

2000

2000

8

Electricity



To operate the drip system

5,000

5000

5000

5000

5000

19


Leaves Drying

 

750

1000

1000

1000

1000

10

Maintenance



Normal Take care of the farm and other mislenous expanses

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

 

TOTAL EXPENCES

 

 

1, 72,250

39,000

39,000

39,000

39,000

         


INOME FROM THE PRODUCTION


S.N.

Particulars

 

I -Year

II-Year

III-Year

IV -Year

V- Year

1


Production

Dry Leaves in Kg.

1500

2500

2500

2500

2500

2


Amount

 @ Rs 100/Kg

150000

250000

250000

250000

250000


Total investment for five year plantation on one acre                        =   3, 28,250 /=
Total return from the five year plantation                                          = 11, 50,000 /=

FOR FIVE ACRE LAND
1.   Total expenses for cost of cultivation  for the 5 Acre  land             = 16,41,250 /=
2.   Total return from plantation from 5 Acre land in  5 year cycle      = 57,50,000 /=

Total expences in first year
1.   Cost of land/ farm development                                              5,25,000 /=
2.   Cost of cultivation of first year                                                 8,81,250 /=
...............................................................................................................................
Total expenses in first year                                                    13,86,250 /=
...............................................................................................................................

Net Return
Net Return from the per year per Acre plantation
S.N.
Particulars
 Amount
1
Total return from plantation from 5 Acre land in  5 year cycle
       57,50,000 /=
2
Total Expenses for the Farm development
(-)     5,25,000 /=
3
Total expenses for cost of cultivation  for the 5 Acre  land
(-)   16,41,250 /=
4
Net  return from plantation from 5 Acre land in  5 year cycle
      35,83,750 /=

Net return per year per acre
       1,43,350 /=


THANK YOU

         


                                                                      


Hahnemann Charitable Mission Society
J-890,Phase3,Sitapura Industrial Area
Jaipur-302022- Rajasthan- INDIA
Contact: - 08107379410

9 comments:

  1. Good Knowledge full post

    ReplyDelete
  2. Stevia cultivation is profitable cultivation in India. The future of stevia cultivation is most profitable in coming time. Please contact us for the stevia cultivation.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
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      Delete
    2. i want to cultivate stevia
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  3. I have listened that stevia cultivation india is sucessfull venture.i want to do the Stevia cultivation in Punjab. please contact me.

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  6. i want to cultivate stevia, i have 30 beegha land in u.p. near mainpuri. plz contact me. 9045211567

    ReplyDelete
  7. i want to cultivate stevia, i have 20 beegha land in kaimur dist. bihar . plz contact me. Dilip Singh mo-9889450840

    ReplyDelete