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The Stevia rebaudiana is commonly known as sweet leaf, sugar leaf, or simply Stevia. This is widely grown for its sweet leaves. Stevia and Sunflower belong to asteraceae family. The sweet herb Stevia is becoming a major source of natural sweetener as an alternate of sugar. It is rapidly replacing the chemical sweetener like Splenda, Saccharine and Aspartame.
The plant is native to tropical and subtropical regions of North America and South America. There are near about 240 species of Stevia Genus. It is grown widely in countries like Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay and Venezuela. In Venezuela it is being used over 1500 years.
Stevia leaves are 30 times sweeter than normal sugar. The extract of stevia Rebaudioside-A is around 300-400 times sweeter than normal sugar. The sweetness of stevia also felt for long time.
There are two compounds in stevia leaves 1.) Stevioside(10%-20%) and 2.) Rebaudioside-A(1-3%). The Stevioside is stable at 100 °C this is main advantage of Steviocide over other sweetener.
Today stevia is ready to become King in the market of sweetener. As demand of low carbohydrate sweetener is rising day by day.
A good market is being developed for stevia domestically as well as internationally. This is a ray of hope for the diabetic patient. As it is natural source of sweetener. It is also used for the treatment of obesity and high blood sugar patient. There is not increase in sugar level after consumption of stevia as sweetener as substitute of normal sugar.
Stevia, therefor, opens up new avenues for crop diversification and a viable alternative to sugarcane. There is a potential to use Stevia in soft drinks, confectionery and bakery etc. Instead of sweeteners with known adverse side effects in the long run. Stevia prevents tooth decay with its microbial property . Majority of the supplementary food products for diabetic patients emphasize on the fibre & protein content the addition of the Stevia leaves, dried or in powder form, in such products would not only aid in increasing the natural sweetness but would also help in rejuvenating the pancreatic gland.
Apart from this, Stevia is nutrient rich, containing substantial amount of Protein, Magnesium, Miocene, riboflavin, Zinc, Chromium, Selenium, Calcium & Phosphorus, Besides Stevia can also be used as a house hold sweetener in preparation of most Indian sweetmeats.
There are different views about stevia in different countries. Countries like Japan and Korea; it is widely used as sweetener. In some countries use of stevia is banned. Initially US govt banned stevia but in year 2008 the extract of stevia Rebaudioside-A was approved as food additive. Today the number of countries is increasing where stevia is available
Stevia crop has good potential in India. There is low risk in this crop. The investment in stevia is also tax free as it is agriculture production. The return also starts to come early. As it is planted for five years so the cost of plantation also accrue one time in five in 5 years. There is high potential of return as compared to traditional crop.
USE OF STEVIA:-
Stevia is available in many forms. The choice is totally dependent amount of sweetness we want. The fresh leaves are least sweet and the extracted white powder is the sweetest.
FRESH STEVIA LEAVES
This form of stevia is the herb in its most natural, unrefined state. A leaf picked from a stevia plant and chewed will impart an extremely sweet taste sensation reminiscent of licorice that lasts for quite a while.
For stevia to have a more practical application as a tea or sweetener, the leaves must be dried or put through an extraction process, which makes the sweet taste even more potent.
For more of the flavor and sweet constituents of the stevia leaf to be released, drying and crushing is necessary. A dried leaf is considerably sweeter than a fresh one, and is the form of stevia used in brewing herbal tea.Dried stevia leaf may come in bulk or packaged like tea bags. You can also get it finely powdered. It has a greenish color and can be used in a wide variety of foods and beverages, including coffee, applesauce and hot cereals. You also can use it to make an herbal tea blend. Its distinctive flavor is reminiscent of licorice, which will blend very well with different aromatic spices, such as cinnamon and ginger.
The form in which stevia is primarily used as a sweetener in Japan is that ofa white powdered extract. In this form it is approximately 200 to 300 times sweeter than sugar (by weight).This white powder is an extract of the sweet glycosides (natural sweetening agents) in the stevia leaf.Not all stevia extract powders are the same. The taste, sweetness and cost of the various white stevia powders will likely depend on their degree of refinement and the quality of the stevia plant used. You may find that some powders have more of an aftertaste.Since extracted stevia powder is so intensely sweet, we recommend that it be used by the pinch (or drop if diluted in water). Once mixed, this solution should be stored in the refrigerator.
These come in several forms. There's a syrupy black liquid (that results from boiling the leaves in water), which can enhance the flavor of many foods. Another type is made by steeping stevia leaves in distilled water or a mix of water and grain alcohol. You can also find a liquid made from the white powder concentrate mixed with water, and preserved with grapefruit seed extract.
One need not be a South American planter to be a successful stevia grower. While the herb's native locale may make it appear somewhat exotic, it has proved to be quite adaptable and capable of being cultivated in climate zones as diverse as Florida and southern Canada.
True, home-grown stevia may lack the potency of refined white stevia extract; whole stevioside content generally ranges from 81 to 91 percent, as compared to a leaf level of approximately 12 percent. But it can provide you with a quantity of freshly harvested stevia 'tea leaves' to augment your supply of commercial stevia sweeteners.
Organic gardeners in particular should find stevia an ideal addition to their yield. Though nontoxic, stevia plants have been found to have insect-repelling tendencies. Their very sweetness, in fact, may be a kind of natural defense mechanism against aphids and other bugs that find it not to their taste. Perhaps that's why crop-devouring grasshoppers have been reported to bypass stevia under cultivation.
Then, too, raising stevia yourself, whether in your back yard or on your balcony, is another positive way you can personally (and quite legally) protest the wrongheaded government policies that have for so long deprived the American people of its benefits -- a kind of contemporary Victory Garden.
How to start your own stevia patch
It would be difficult, at best, to start a stevia patch from scratch -- that is, by planting seeds. Even if you could get them to germinate, results might well prove disappointing, since stevioside levels can vary greatly in plants grown from seed.
The recommended method is rather to buy garden-ready 'starter' plants, which given stevia's 'growing' popularity, may well be obtainable from a nursery or herbalist in your area -- provided you're willing to scout around a bit. If you're not, or are unsuccessful in locating any, there are at least three growers of high-quality stevia who will ship you as many baby plants as you'd like.
Keep in mind that not all stevia plants are created equal in terms of stevioside content, and, hence, sweetness. It's therefore a good idea to try to determine if the plants you're buying have been grown from cuttings whose source was high in stevioside.
Because tender young stevia plants are especially sensitive to low temperatures, it's important that you wait until the danger of frost is past and soil temperatures are well into the 50s and 60s before transplanting them into your garden.
Once you begin, it's best to plant your stevia in rows 20 to 24 inches apart, leaving about 18 inches between plants. Your plants should grow to a height of about 30 inches and a width of 18 to 24 inches.
The care and feeding of stevia
Stevia plants do best in a rich, loamy soil -- the same kind in which common garden-variety plants thrive. Since the feeder roots tend to be quite near the surface, it is a good idea to add compost for extra nutrients if the soil in your area is sandy.
Besides being sensitive to cold during their developmental stage, the roots can also be adversely affected by excessive levels of moisture. So take care not to overwater them and to make sure the soil in which they are planted drains easily and isn't soggy or subject to flooding or puddling.
Frequent light watering is recommended during the summer months. Adding a layer of compost or your favorite mulch around each stevia plant will help keep the shallow feeder roots from drying out.
Stevia plants respond well to fertilizers with a lower nitrogen content than the fertilizer's phosphoric acid or potash content. Most organic fertilizers would work well, since they release nitrogen slowly.
Gathering autumn stevia leaves
Harvesting should be done as late as possible, since cool autumn temperatures and shorter days tend to intensify the sweetness of the plants as they evolve into a reproductive state. While exposure to frost is still to be avoided, covering the plants during an early frost can give you the benefit of another few weeks' growth and more sweetness.
When the time does come to harvest your stevia, the easiest technique is to cut the branches off with pruning shears before stripping the leaves. As an extra bonus, you might also want to clip off the very tips of the stems and add them to your harvest, as they are apt to contain as much stevioside as do the leaves.
If you live in a relatively frost-free climate, your plants may well be able to survive the winter outside, provided you do not cut the branches too short (leaving about 4 inches of stem at the base during pruning). In that case, your most successful harvest will probably come in the second year. Five-year-old plants will not be as productive and, ideally, should be replaced with new cuttings.
In harsher climates, however, it might be a good idea to take cuttings that will form the basis for the next year's crop. Cuttings need to be rooted before planting, using either commercial rooting hormones or a natural base made from willow tree tips, pulverized onto a slurry in your blender. After dipping the cuttings in such a preparation, they should be planted in a rooting medium for two to three weeks, giving the new root system a chance to form. They should then be potted -- preferably in 4.5-inch pots -- and placed in the sunniest and least drafty part of your home until the following spring.
Once all your leaves have been harvested you will need to dry them. This can be accomplished on a screen or net. (For a larger application, an alfalfa or grain drier can be used, but about the only way an average gardener might gain access to such a device is to borrow it from a friendly neighbourhood farmer). The drying process is not one that requires excessive heat; more important is good air circulation. On a moderately warm fall day, your stevia crop can be quick dried in the full sun in about 12 hours. (Drying times longer than that will lower the stevioside content of the final product.) A home dehydrator can also be used, although sun drying is the preferred method.
Crushing the dried leaves is the final step in releasing stevia's sweetening power. This can be done either by hand or, for greater effect, in a coffee grinder or in a special blender for herbs. You can also make your own liquid stevia extract by adding a cup of warm water to 1/4 cup of fresh, finely-crushed stevia leaves. This mixture should set for 24 hours and then be refrigerated.
Just because you live within the confines of an apartment or condominium doesn't mean you can't enjoy the benefits of stevia farming. This versatile plant can be grown either in pots on your balcony or any sunny spot, or else in a hydroponic unit. Stevia plants also do quite well in "container gardens." A 10" to 12" diameter container filled with a lightweight growing mix is an ideal size for each plant. A little mulch on the top will help retain the moisture in the shallow root zone. A properly fertilized hydroponic unit or container garden can provide you with as much stevia as an outdoor garden, if not more.